At this time the main choice of physical transmission media infrastructure used in the world Telecommunications network of the century. Besides copper cables, the main choice is the FIBER OPTIC cable.
Optical fiber communication is based on the principle that light on glass media can carry more information over long distances than can be carried by electrical signals in a copper Twisted Pair or coaxial media. With little loss of transmission, low interference rates, and high bandwidth potential. Optical fiber is the center for success from various types of application operations. High-speed communication, from local area networks (LAN) to remote systems to penetrate the Metropolitan Area Network, each of these application applications has high technical requirements, specific optical fibers have been developed to provide optimum performance and high quality.
Optical fiber is a fine strand of glass strands and there are several different types available for telecommunication application applications. Depending on their construction, these optical fibers are categorized based on the way they deliver light and the applications they support. Two categories of optical fibers with different characteristics are Multimode fiber (many modes) and singlemode (one mode). In the Multimode category, the most important difference is between step index and graded index. The definition of fiber is further related to physical size, optical performance, coating, and strength members. After the jacket of the sheath is formed on optical fibers, they become fiber cables which will be further categorized, the design and construction of the physical cable will determine the application environment.
The table below provides a brief overview of cabling industry standards recognizing optical fiber used in premise cabling. Four types of optical fibers are specified to support a variety of application classes, multimode optical fiber type types (OM1, OM2, OM3) and one singlemode type (OS1), OS1 refers to standard singlemode fiber, ITU-T G.652.
EFL ( Effective Laser Launch Bandwidth ) OFL ( Overfilled Launch Bandwidth ).